Our background knowledge was originally acquired from working in a research group in the University of Leeds in the area of clean technology. Since 1984 some 50 PhD students and 30 research assistants and post-doctoral fellows worked in the group. The main fields of study were supercritical fluids and superheated water. We were prominent in supercritical fluids and the first to study superheated water for plant extraction. Some selected publications are shown below with our staff in bold.

[1]          K.D. Bartle, A.A. Clifford and G.F. Shilstone, ‘Prediction of solubilities in supercritical carbon dioxide: a correlation for the Peng-Robinson interaction parameters’, Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 1992, 5 220.

[2]          A. Basile, M. Jimenez-Carmona, A. A. Clifford, “Extraction of rosemary by superheated water”, J. Agric. Food Chem.,1998, 46 5205.

[3]          A.A. Clifford, K. Pople, W.J. Gaskill, K.D. Bartle and C.M. Rayner, ‘Potential tuning and reaction control in the Diels-Alder reaction between cyclopentadiene and methyl acrylate in supercritical carbon dioxide’, Journal of the Chemical Society, Faraday Transactions 1998, 94 1451.

[4]          T. Clifford, Fundamentals of Supercritical Fluids, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998, 210 pages.

[5]          K. Pople, A.A. Clifford and M. Hawkins, ‘Supercritical carbon dioxide an environmentally friendly solvent for the leather industry’, Proceedings of the 6th Meeting on Supercritical Fluids, Nottingham, April 1999.

[6]          J.R. Williams and A.A. Clifford (editors), Supercritical fluid methods and protocols, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 2000, 256 pages.

[7]          A.A. Clifford and R.L. Green, ‘Staining of fingerprints on cheques and banknotes using ninhydrin’,  in Supercritical fluid methods and protocols, ed. A.A. Clifford and J.R. Williams, Ch. 32, 245-249, Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, 2000.

[8]          S. B. Hawthorne, D. J. Miller, A. J. M. Lagadec, P. J. Hammond, A. A. Clifford, “Method of manipulating the chemical properties of water to improve the effectiveness of a desired process”, US Patent 6352644, 2002.

[9]          A. A. Clifford, “Separations using superheated water”, in Green Separation Processes, Ed. C. A. M. Afonso, J. P. S. G. Crespo, Wiley-VCH, pp. 323-340, 2005.

[10]      A. A. Clifford, H. J. Vandenburg and R. L. Green, ‘Theory of oligomer production by hydrolysis in superheated water’ Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on supercritical Fluids, Kyoto, November, 2006.